Knowledge management is a mechanism by which it gathers all the governmental knowledge that staggered with individuals or with documents and develop it to become a system that helps the organization personnel to get access to such knowledge. The personnel can then improve himself to become a guru and work efficiently thus resulted in the increasing the organization’s competitive ability to its best. The knowledge can be divided into two categories.
1. Tacit Knowledge Tacit knowledge derives from experiences, talent, or instinct of each individual to be able to understand things around him. This knowledge cannot be easily transferred or conveyed in words or in writing for example, professional skill, craftsmanship skill, or analytical thinking skill. Therefore, tacit knowledge is sometimes called an abstract knowledge.
2. Explicit Knowledge Explicit knowledge derives from knowledge that can be gained and collected. This knowledge can be transferred and conveyed through many ways for example in a writing from, in theory, and in manual. Therefore, explicit knowledge is sometimes called a concrete knowledge.
Knowledge management is a process that helps knowledge development. It can be categorized into 7 processes.
1. Knowledge Indication – to examine what is the organization’s vision, obligation, policy and its target? What do we need to succeed the goal? What knowledge do we have at the moment? In what form? And with whom?
2. Create knowledge and seek knowledge for example create new knowledge, seek knowledge from the outside, maintain old knowledge, disregard knowledge that is no longer used.
3. Systemize the knowledge by put them in structure to be well-prepared for the future knowledge management
4. Evaluate knowledge for example, standardize the document’s format and improve the content at its best.
5. Knowledge access is the ways that facilitate the user to easily and conveniently gain access to the knowledge for example through information technology (IT), web board, and advertisement board.
6. Knowledge exchange can be done in many ways especially with explicit knowledge. Explicit knowledge can be shared by producing materials based on that particular knowledge. IT knowledge and tacit knowledge can be systemized as a working team, group activities on quality and innovation, knowledge learning community, mentoring system, changing work, taking someone on loan, and knowledge sharing stage.
7. Learning process – learning should be in a working process for example, creating a learning system from knowledge creation then using that knowledge to create new learning and new experiences and in the end, circulate that knowledge on for a better cause.
This model is the easiest knowledge management whereby it compares the knowledge management with a mackerel that has 3 parts as follows;
1. Mackerel’s Head Knowledge Vision (KV) – the brain and the eyes to set the direction and being able to answer what the KM is for?
2. Mackerel’s Body Knowledge Sharing (KS) – the body is the heart of the model focusing on Share & Learn
3. Mackerel’s Tail Knowledge Assets (KA) – the tail is a knowledge store to communicate with other network by applying ICT and flipping the tail to empower CoPs